Ubik Type Declarations =================================================
Haldean Brown                                      First draft: May 2016
                                                  Last updated: May 2016

Status: In progress
    - Type aliases (not useful until type inference is complete)
    - Interfaces


There are three varieties of type declaration currently supported by the
Ubik specification:

    1. Type aliases
    2. Algebraic Data Types (ADTs)
    3. Interfaces

Type aliases -----------------------------------------------------------

Type aliases are declared using the bind operator, much like a normal

    : RowId = Integer

This establishes RowId as an alias for Integer. An alias is
unidirectional; given the alias ": A = B", a value of type A can be used
as a B, but a B cannot be used as an A.

An alias automatically inherits all of the interface implementations of
the aliased type. The inherited implementations can be overridden by
specifying a more specific implementation of the interface (see section

The full grammar of type aliases is:

    type_alias : TYPE_NAME IS type_expr

Algebraic Data Types ---------------------------------------------------

Algebraic Data Types (ADTs) are specified using the type operator. At
their simplest, ADTs are just like tuples:

    ^ Row = Row RowId Key Value

This specifies a new ADT called "Row" with a single constructor that
takes a RowId, a Key, and a Value. Multiple constructors can be given:

    ^ Solid
        = Sphere Vector Double
        = Box Vector Vector
        = Cylinder Vector Vector Double

There is no correspondence between the name of the type and the name of
the constructors; for those coming from an OO-oriented language, each
constructor can be thought of as concrete subclasses of the abstract

To make things even more interesting, an ADT can take other types as
parameters; this allows for things like strongly-typed containers or
other applications in which generics are useful. For example, you could
define a generic list type as:

    ^ List t
        = Cons t List
        = Nil

which is, coincidentally, exactly how Lists are defined. If you're
looking for multiple parameters, you just specify multiple variables:

    ^ Mapper a b = Func (a -> b) (List a)

This defines a Mapper type with a Func constructor, which takes a
function that maps one type to another, along with a list of the first
type. If you want to get really fancy, you can place constraints on the
types of the variables using the given and exists operators:

    ^ EqualPair a b
        | ' Eq a
        | ' Eq b
        = EqualPair a b

In this example, the type can only be constructed if there are
implementations of Eq for both of the two arguments.

The full grammar of ADTs is:

        : TYPE TYPE_NAME type_params constraints ctors

        : NAME type_params | %empty

        : GIVEN EXISTS TYPE_NAME names constraints
        | %empty

        : NAME names
        | %empty

        : ctor ctors
        | ctor

        : IS TYPE_NAME parameters

        : type_atom parameters
        | OPEN_PAR type_expr CLOSE_PAR
        | %empty

Interfaces -------------------------------------------------------------

Interfaces are lists of methods that types can implement. Interfaces
are often called "type classes" in other functional languages, but in my
experience calling them "classes" only serves to confuse people who are
used to object-oriented programming, where "class" is something more
like a "record".

Interfaces are specified using a combination of the interface and member

    _ Numberish a
        . add ^ a -> a -> a
        . mult ^ a -> a -> a

Once specified, you can implement the interface by specifying an
implementation, using the defines and member operators:

    ~ Numberish Integer
        . add = \x, y -> iadd x y
        . mult = \x, y -> imult x y

    ~ Numberish Float
        . add = fadd
        . mult = fmult

You can then define methods that accept any type that implements an

    : square
        ^ x -> x | ' Numberish x
        = \x -> mult x x

Interfaces can also take parameters, because why not:

    _ Evaluable x res
        . eval ^ x -> res

Implementations must explicitly specify concrete types for the type
parameters of the interface being implemented:

    _ Evaluable String (Maybe Integer)
        . eval = \x -> read-string x

Just like ADTs, constraints on the type variables can be specified:

    _ NumberList x a
        | ' Numberish a
        . get ^ x -> Index -> a
        . sum ^ x -> a

You can then implement this with:

    ~ NumberList (List Integer) Integer
        . get = list:get
        . sum = reduce iadd 0

The full grammar of interface definitions is:

        : INTERFACE TYPE_NAME type_params constraints members

        : NAME type_params | %empty

        : GIVEN EXISTS TYPE_NAME names class_constraints
        | %empty

        : NAME names
        | %empty

        : MEMBER NAME TYPE type_expr members
        | %empty

The full grammar of interface implementations is:

        : DEFINES TYPE_NAME parameters members

        : type_atom parameters
        | OPEN_PAR type_expr CLOSE_PAR
        | %empty

        : MEMBER NAME IS expr